Alcohol Binges Early In Pregnancy Increase Risk Of Infant Oral Clefts, July 31, 2008 News Release

See Standards for Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Teams for essential characteristics of quality for team composition and functioning. An SLP conducts a comprehensive speech and language assessment using both standardized and nonstandardized measures. (See ASHA’s resource on assessment tools, techniques and data sources).

If you have a family history of cleft lip and cleft palate, tell your doctor before you become pregnant. Your doctor may refer you to a genetic counselor who can help determine your risk of having children with cleft lip and cleft palate. CDC continues to study birth defects, such as cleft lip and cleft palate, and how to prevent them. If you are pregnant or thinking about becoming pregnant, talk with your doctor about ways to increase your chances of having a healthy baby. Babies and children with cleft lip and cleft palate may have feeding, speech, hearing and dental problems. Most of the time the cause of an isolated cleft lip and/or palate is not known.

fetal alcohol syndrome cleft palate

The most frequently reported abnormal facial features in FASD are thin upper lip, indistinct or smooth philtrum and short palpebral fissure length. Other features are microganthia, low set ears, ptosis, absent or indistinct philtral ridge, epicanthal folds, cleft palate, flat nasal bridge and midface hypoplasia. The neurocognitive features commonly reported in FASD are microcephaly, intellectual disability, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and behavioural impairments. Central nervous system injury is also seen and is debilitating. Structural abnormalities of the CNS can include microcephaly, agenesis/absence of the corpus callosum and multiple severe brain malformations. This review article seeks to address the association of FASD with diabetes and CHD. Alcohol is the most common human teratogen, but its significant physical and neurobehavioral effects are completely preventable.


Commonly associated diagnoses as attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, depression, or anxiety should be recognized and treated appropriately. The disabilities that present Transitional living during childhood persist into adult life. However, some of the secondary disabilities already mentioned may be avoided or lessened by early diagnosis and intervention.

Approximately 4,000 pregnancies in the United States are affected by NTDs each year. Clefts can create other health issues, such as speech and dental problems.

  • Brunner, M., Stellzig-Eisenhauer, A., Pröschel, U., Verres, R., & Komposch, G.
  • Monitoring persistent nasal substitutions and glottal stops.If present after surgery, this might indicate learned behaviors despite a potentially adequate VP mechanism.
  • Tanaka, S. A., Mahabir, R. G., Jupiter, D. C., & Menezes, J. M.
  • Because imaging procedures are expensive and relatively inaccessible to most people, diagnosis of FAS is not frequently made via structural impairments, except for microcephaly.
  • Usually babies require several days of close monitoring after surgery.

It is imperative that maternal alcohol use and its sequelae be considered and addressed in daily pediatric practice. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnosis, epidemiology, management, prognosis, and prevention of FAS.

What Are The Consequences Of Birth Defects?

Clefting can also be caused by chromosomal differences in individuals born with genetic syndromes. Speech and language development in children with clefts depends on a number of factors, including hearing status, type and severity of the cleft, and the presence of a syndrome. Craniofacial conditions, including cleft lip and palate, are congenital structural anomalies caused by atypical embryological development. Craniofacial differences are a result of interruption in embryologic growth between the 4th and 10th week of the developing embryo or fetus (Peterson-Falzone, Hardin-Jones, & Karnell, 2010). Research is being conducted regarding the prevention of fetal alcohol syndrome.

These are required to eliminate multi-factorial disorders that imitate the features of partial FAS or FAS. One of the most immediate concerns after birth is feeding. While most babies with cleft lip can breast-feed, a cleft palate may make sucking difficult. Parents with a family history of cleft lip or cleft palate face a higher risk of having a baby with a cleft. The mother or the father can pass on genes that cause clefting, either alone or as part of a genetic syndrome that includes a cleft lip or cleft palate as one of its signs. In some cases, babies inherit a gene that makes them more likely to develop a cleft, and then an environmental trigger actually causes the cleft to occur. Researchers believe that most cases of cleft lip and cleft palate are caused by an interaction of genetic and environmental factors.

fetal alcohol syndrome cleft palate

Hand features associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders include clinodactyly and “hockey stick” crease . The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome is based on defined clinical characteristics and does not require confirmed alcohol use during pregnancy. The researchers found increased risks of orofacial clefts among infants whose mothers reported binge-level drinking of an average of five or more drinks per occasion during the first-trimester compared to non-drinkers. Risk was further increased among women who drank at this level most frequently. The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies , clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals.

When Are Birth Defects Diagnosed?

Causal attributions of cleft lip and palate across cultures. Cross-cultural attitudes and perceptions towards cleft lip and palate deformities. Chapman, K. L., Hardin-Jones, M. A., Schulte, J., & Halter, K. A.

Some accept only FAS as a diagnosis, seeing the evidence as inconclusive with respect to other types. Inherited disorders can be prevented by identifying them in the parents before a baby is conceived. Placenta —The organ that provides oxygen and nutrition from the mother to the unborn baby during pregnancy. The placenta is attached to the wall of the uterus and leads to the unborn baby via the umbilical cord. Cleft palate —A congenital malformation in which there is an abnormal opening in the roof of the mouth that allows the nasal passages and the mouth to be improperly connected.

fetal alcohol syndrome cleft palate

Please note that some of these organizations may provide information concerning certain conditions potentially associated with this disorder. Information on current clinical trials is posted on the Internet at All studies receiving U.S. government funding, and some supported by private industry, are posted on this government web site. Counseling is recommended for women to discuss the risks that seizures prevent for both the developing fetus and the expectant mother as well as the risks to the developing fetus involved with taking anti-seizure medications during pregnancy. Affected infants may also exhibit stiff, tapered fingers, underdeveloped fingers and toes, toes that resembled fingers , and malformed, underdeveloped fingernails and toenails.

School-age children with fetal alcohol syndrome usually have problems with ADHD. Stimulant medication, such as dextroamphetamine or methylphenidate , can be helpful in this age group. Computers may enhance academic learning and language skills for children with fetal alcohol syndrome. Computer programs may help with visual spatial perceptual skills. Such programs as “KidPix,” which enhances drawing and graphics, or “Blocks in Motion,” which focuses on visual spatial processing, may be beneficial. Additionally, such programs as “Oregon Trails,” “Interactive Journeys,” and “Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?” use problem solving skills through reading and listening cues, and are helpful for academic progress in math and reading. Programs that enhance writing skills, such as word prediction software, can expand written language abilities.

fetal alcohol syndrome cleft palate

That means about 70% remain without a straightforward cause. As many as 50-70% of birth defects are sporadic, and their cause remains unknown. A combination of environmental and genetic factors can increase the risk of certain birth defects. Diabetes and obesity can possibly increase your child’s risk of birth defects.

FAS is believed to occur in between 0.2 and 9 per 1000 live births in the United States. The lifetime costs of an individual with FAS were estimated to be two million USD in 2002. Drinking any quantity during pregnancy, the risk of giving birth to a child with FASD is about 15%, and to a child with FAS about 1.5%. Drinking large quantities, defined as 2 standard drinks a day, or 6 standard drinks in a short time, carries a 50% risk of a FAS birth. The secondary disabilities of FAS are those that arise later in life secondary to CNS damage.

They may be caused by a combination of things, like genes and things in your environment, like what you eat or drink and medicines you take. Genes are parts of your body’s cells that store instructions for the way your body grows and works. We don’t always know what causes cleft lip and palate, but things likes smoking, having diabetes fetal alcohol syndrome cleft palate and taking certain medicines can increase risk. Neural tube defects are one of the most common birth defects. NTDs result when the neural tube fails to close during the first month of embryonic development. NTDs include several disorders ranging from spina bifida to a lack of a cranium and its contents, called anencephaly.

Pearson chi-square tests were used to compare the percentages of beer, wine, and liquor drinkers among the women who reported an average of five or more drinks per sitting and those who reported four or fewer. To assess possible differences in infant cleft risk by the type of alcohol the mothers consumed, separate multivariable logistic regression models were conducted to examine beer/wine consumption and liquor consumption . Cleft lip and cleft palate are usually diagnosed at birth during the baby’s first examination.

Other risk factors include the mother’s older age, smoking, and poor diet. There is no known safe amount or time to drink alcohol during pregnancy. Although drinking small amounts does not cause facial abnormalities, it may cause behavioral problems. Alcohol crosses the blood–brain barrier and both directly Sober companion and indirectly affects a developing fetus. Diagnosis is based on the signs and symptoms in the person. The prognosis for FAS depends on the severity of birth defects and the brain damage present at birth. Miscarriage, stillbirth, or death in the first few weeks of life may be outcomes in very severe cases.

Feeding issues and interventions in infants and children with clefts and craniofacial syndromes. Disorders of resonance and airflow secondary to cleft palate and/or velopharyngeal dysfunction. Beaty, T. H., Ruczinski, I., Murray, J. C., Marazita, M. L., Munger, R. G., Hetmanski, J. B., . Evidence for gene-environment interaction in a genome-wide study of nonsyndromic cleft palate. Individuals transitioning from child-centered multidisciplinary care to adult-centered care may face a number of challenges, including difficulties locating appropriate services on their own.

Author: Deborah Weatherspoon